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mixed (electoral) systems

It has become common over the last decade for electoral systems to combine two electoral formulas for the choice of candidates for a representative assembly .  New Zealand, for example, has adopted a system which combines a single member plurality system with a list system of proportional representation (see mixed member proportional ).  While most mixed systems aim to achieve proportional outcomes—the vote share of a party is matched by a similar share of seats in the assembly—this is not always the case.  Some mixed systems such as that used for the Japanese House of Representatives produce outcomes which favour large parties.  These systems are sometimes called mixed member majority systems (MMM).  See also additional member .
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