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Submission LASTMAN-1606 (Online)

Submission By Howard Lastman
AddressToronto, Ontario,
CategoryElectoral system change, Link/reference to other resources, Other
Information and references on the d'Hondt Greatest Averages Method of proportional representation, and on the STV electoral system used by the Australian Capital Territory. [2 pages]

Submission Content
In an earlier submission, I had incorrectly stated that full STV has never been used for open party lists. I was relying on outdated information.

In the 1989 and 1992 Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly Elections the Modified d'Hondt Electoral System was used. This electoral system used party list proportional representation using the d'Hondt Greatest Averages Method and a Threshold of 5.56 percent. Candidates for the open lists were selected using the Hare-Clark method of STV. Details on this method may be found at the following website:

If the Citizens' Assembly decides to use a party list system for compensatory second tier seats (e.g., MMP or MMM - Ensemble), the "Modified d'Hondt Electoral System" is a proven list PR system that maximizes voter choice.

Since 1992, the Australia Captial Territory has used the Hare-Clark method of STV in DM=5 and DM=7 ridings. See the follwing website for details:

Also, the Australian Capital Territory started a pilot project in electronic voting in 2001.

The electronic voting system is known as "eVACS" and has the following characteristics:

-audio for vision impaired voters
-multiple languages
-multiple alphabets
-operates on standard hardware (i.e., off the shelf personal computers, bar code readers, and headphones)
-compatible with any election system (including STV, AV, FPP, MMP)
-software is under a general public license
-software is open-source
-runs on Linux OS

Details on eVACS may be found on the following websites:,1272,61045,00.html

Unfortunately, eVACS currently lacks a voter-verified paper trail. However, this could be added.

Development of the software was headed by Matt Quinn of Software Improvements.

Phillip Green is the ACT Electoral Commissioner and has been heavily involved with eVACS as well as with the Modified d'Hondt Electoral System.

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